Custom Peptide Conjugation, KLH/BSA/Blue

At Click Biosystems, we offer custom peptide conjugation services. Peptides and other haptens alone are usually insufficient to elicit antibody production. Thus, generation of antibodies against these compounds often requires conjugation of the desired peptide or hapten to a carrier protein, such as Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), Blue Carrier (CCH), or bovine serum albumin (BSA). Our custom peptide conjugation services routinely deliver high-quality immunogens. Our conjugation products of peptide-KLH, peptide-Blue Carrier Protein, and peptide-BSA are very useful for antibody development.


• Various peptide modifications
• Fine-tune coupling methods
• Various carrier proteins (KLH, Blue Carrier Protein, BSA, ovalbumin, thyroglobulin, toxins)
• Peptide yield >90%
• High purity by removing unconjugated peptides and drugs
• Various QC methods (SDS-PAGE, Mass, peptide consumption assay)

Service areas

• Peptide synthesis and modification
• Conjugation of peptide to carrier protein (KLH, Blue Carrier Protein, BSA, etc.)
• Conjugation of peptide to agarose resin
• Affinity purification of antibody from serum

Construction of peptide-carrier protein conjugates

Many methods can conjugate a peptide to a carrier protein. A peptide can directly conjugate to a carrier protein using glutaraldehyde or EDC crosslinker. However, these methods often cause homo-crosslinking of the peptide or carrier protein. Thus, the peptides frequently contain a modification of thiol-, hydrazide-, or azide group that can selectively react to activated carrier proteins.

Standard Procedures for Custom Peptide Conjugation

•Creating peptide with correct modification (thiol, hydrazide, azide)
•Modifying carrier protein by a proper crosslinker
•Removing the excess crosslinker
•Coupling peptide to modified carrier protein
•Removing unconjugated peptide
•Quality assurance

Custom peptide conjugation to KLH (Peptide-KLH conjugate)

Peptide-KLH conjugates are currently the industry standard for antibody production against a hapten or peptide. KLH is a large glycoprotein protein consisting of around 3400 amino acids. Because KLH has a high molecular weight (4.5 × 105 to 1.3 × 107 Da), and is highly distinct from mammals, it is potently immunogenic and is capable of eliciting a strong immune response. Moreover, KLH has many reactive amino and carboxyl groups that allow conjugation of large quantities of the peptide or drug. Thus, peptide-KLH conjugates are very useful immunogens.

Custom peptide conjugation to Blue Carrier Protein (Peptide-CCH Conjugate)

Peptide-Blue Carrier Protein conjugate is an ideal choice for creating peptide immunogens. Blue Carrier Protein (CCH) is a large, complex protein (8000 kDa) that elicits a strong immune reaction mediated by T and B lymphocytes. Like KLH, because Blue Carrier Protein has many amino and carboxyl groups, it allows conjugation of large quantities of the peptide or drug. However, Blue Carrier Protein is highly soluble and more stable than KLH. Therefore, peptide-Blue Carrier Protein conjugates are the most favorable immunogens for antibody development. We have extensive experience in creating peptide-KLH and peptide-Blue Carrier Protein conjugates.

Custom peptide conjugation to BSA (Peptide-BSA conjugate)

A peptide can also conjugate to BSA to create a peptide-BSA conjugate. The mature BSA protein has 583 amino acids. BSA also has 59 lysine residues that can efficiently conjugate peptides. While BSA is more soluble than KLH, it is less immunogenic. Thus, peptide-BSA conjugates are very useful for ELISA assay for the titration of a specific antibody against the peptide.

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